Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA)

Scuba diver in the open water

Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) includes a face mask, compressed air tank, and regulator.  This system has significant breathing resistance and dead space.  Additionally, diving itself has many physical stressors, including cold water and hyperbaric gas exposure, exercise, and risk of decompression sickness.  Cardiovascular stress is increased considerably by wearing SCUBA and diving.